Ergotalkaloider

Generell information

Ordet ergotalkaloider kommer från ergot (mjöldryga på svenska).

Vissa naturliga och syntetiska ergotalkalouder besitter hallucinogena egenskaper (LSA, LSH, LSD) medans andra (Ergotamin och andra ergotpeptider) är giftiga och kan i värsta fall (hög dos eller många doser under lång tid) leda till kallbrand och/eller döden. Men som med alla gifter så finns även medicinska användningsområden. Ergotamin kan exempelvis användas för att lindra migrän.

Olika ergotalkaloider

The Psychoactive Ergot Alkaloids:

This group contains five compounds known to be psychoactive in humans, these are ergine, isoergine, ergonovine, elymoclavine and lysergol. Ergine (LA 111) produces a entheogenic effect with sedative side-effects (Hoffman, 1963). Ergonovine also produces a entheogenic effect (Bigwood et al., 1979). Elymoclavine is the probable entheogenic alkaloid of Tchunfki (Costa et al., 1992). Lysergol has also been found to be weakly entheogenic in experiments on humans (Heimann, 1965). Isoergine produces sedative effects and `a feeling of mental emptiness and of the unreality and complete meaningless of the outside world' (Hoffman, 1971).

Animal experiments have shown that elymoclavine, lysergol, LSD and several other ergot alkaloids such as agroclavine, triseclavine, penniclavine, lysergine and lysergene have excitory effects on the central nervous system (Yui & Takeo, 1958a) as well as lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide which also excites the central nervous system in animals (Glasser, 1961). The effects of agroclavine are similar to those of elymoclavine and LSD on rabbits (Yui & Takeo, 1958b), indicating that the effect of agroclavine may well be psychoactive in humans as well. It also seems likely that agroclavine, triseclavine, penniclavine, lysergine and lysergene and lysergic acid hydroxyethylamide will be psychoactive in humans. Even ergot alkaloids such as chanoclavine and ergonovine which do not produce psychoactive effects when administered in low doses (Hoffman, 1963) cannot be ruled out as not being psychoactive in humans in high doses, which is what happens with ergonovine at high doses (Bigwood et al., 1979).
— The Psychoactive Ergot Alkaloids and their occurrence in the Microfungi[1]

Naturligt förekommande

Obs, ej komplett lista.

Claviceps purpurea
  • Agroclavin
  • Chanoclavin
  • Elymoclavin
  • Ergonovin (= ergometrin, ergobasin, ergotocin, ergostetrin) (dos 5-10mg)[2]
  • Isoergin
  • Ergotamin
  • Lysergen
  • Lysergin
  • lysergol
  • Lysergsyra
  • LSA (= Ergin, LA-111, lysergamid)
  • LSH (= Lysergsyrahydroxietylamid)
  • Penniclavin
  • Triseclavin

Syntetiska (samt dos)

Albert Hofmann på LSD-blotter
  • ALD-52, 1-Acetyl-N,N-dietyllysergamid, (50-175ug)
  • DAM-57, N,N-Dimetyllysergamid, (runt 1mg)
  • DAL, N,N-Diallyllysergamid, (600ug -)
  • LAE-32, N-etyllysergamid, (1.6 mg -)
  • LPD-824, N-Pyrrolidyllysergamid, (800ug -)
  • LSD, d-Lysergsyradiethylamid, (60-200ug)
  • LSM-775, N-Morpholinyllysergamid, (75-700ug)
  • MLD-41, 1-Metyl-N,N-dietyllysergamid, (100-300ug)
  • UML-491, Metysergid, Sansert, (20mg)
  • Metylergonovin (= metylergometrin, metylergobasin, d-lysergsyra 1-butanolamid) (2mg)[3]

Källa: Bland annat Tihkal[4]

Källor till ergotalkaloider

Se listor i artikeln parasitsvampar.

Ett flertal växter i familjen Convolvulaceae lever i symbios med parasitsvamparna som sprider sig vidare med frön och ger dom sin psykoaktiva effekt.

Kemi

Ergotalkaloids6.jpg
LSA
LSD
LSH

Ergotalkaloids3.jpg

Ergotalkaloids5.jpg

Biosyntes

Lysergic acid biosynthesis.png

Trådar på magiska molekyler

Ergotalkaloider och var man hittar dom.

Externa länkar

  1. The Psychoactive Ergot Alkaloids and their occurrence in the Microfungi (M. P. Bock and D. G. Parbery)
  2. Entheogenic Effects of Ergonovine (Bigwood & Ott)
  3. Entheogenic (Hallucinogenic) Effects Of Methylergonovine (Ott & Neely)
  4. TIHKAL - #26 LSD-25 Shulgin skriver en hel del om LSD och andra ergotalkaloider här.

The Known and Suspected Psychoactive Ergot Alkaloids

Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus Occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae)

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